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  4. 日本国憲法 第五十八条〔役員の選任及び議院の自律権〕とは?〜中田宏と考える憲法シリーズ〜




日本国憲法 第五十八条〔役員の選任及び議院の自律権〕とは?〜中田宏と考える憲法シリーズ〜

The Constitution of Japan
Constitution November 3, 1946

第四章 国会

第四十一条 国会は、国権の最高機関であつて、国の唯一の立法機関である。

Article 41. The Diet shall be the highest organ of state power, and shall be the sole law-making organ of the State.

第四十二条 国会は、衆議院及び参議院の両議院でこれを構成する。

Article 42. The Diet shall consist of two Houses, namely the House of Representatives and the House of Councillors.

第四十三条 両議院は、全国民を代表する選挙された議員でこれを組織する。

Article 43. Both Houses shall consist of elected members, representative of all the people.

2 両議院の議員の定数は、法律でこれを定める。

The number of the members of each House shall be fixed by law.

第四十四条 両議院の議員及びその選挙人の資格は、法律でこれを定める。但し、人種、信条、性別、社会的身分、門地、教育、財産又は収入によつて差別してはならない。

Article 44. The qualifications of members of both Houses and their electors shall be fixed by law. However, there shall be no discrimination because of race, creed, sex, social status, family origin, education, property or income.

第四十五条 衆議院議員の任期は、四年とする。但し、衆議院解散の場合には、その期間満了前に終了する。

Article 45. The term of office of members of the House of Representatives shall be four years. However, the term shall be terminated before the full term is up in case the House of Representatives is dissolved.

第四十六条 参議院議員の任期は、六年とし、三年ごとに議員の半数を改選する。

Article 46. The term of office of members of the House of Councillors shall be six years, and election for half the members shall take place every three years.

第四十七条 選挙区、投票の方法その他両議院の議員の選挙に関する事項は、法律でこれを定める。

Article 47. Electoral districts, method of voting and other matters pertaining to the method of election of members of both Houses shall be fixed by law.

第四十八条 何人も、同時に両議院の議員たることはできない。

Article 48. No person shall be permitted to be a member of both Houses simultaneously.

第四十九条 両議院の議員は、法律の定めるところにより、国庫から相当額の歳費を受ける。

Article 49. Members of both Houses shall receive appropriate annual payment from the national treasury in accordance with law.

第五十条 両議院の議員は、法律の定める場合を除いては、国会の会期中逮捕されず、会期前に逮捕された議員は、その議院の要求があれば、会期中これを釈放しなければならない。

Article 50. Except in cases provided by law, members of both Houses shall be exempt from apprehension while the Diet is in session, and any members apprehended before the opening of the session shall be freed during the term of the session upon demand of the House.

第五十一条 両議院の議員は、議院で行つた演説、討論又は表決について、院外で責任を問はれない。

Article 51. Members of both Houses shall not be held liable outside the House for speeches, debates or votes cast inside the House.

第五十二条 国会の常会は、毎年一回これを召集する。

Article 52. An ordinary session of the Diet shall be convoked once per year.

第五十三条 内閣は、国会の臨時会の召集を決定することができる。いづれかの議院の総議員の四分の一以上の要求があれば、内閣は、その召集を決定しなければならない。

Article 53. The Cabinet may determine to convoke extraordinary sessions of the Diet. When a quarter or more of the total members of either House makes the demand, the Cabinet must determine on such convocation.

第五十四条 衆議院が解散されたときは、解散の日から四十日以内に、衆議院議員の総選挙を行ひ、その選挙の日から三十日以内に、国会を召集しなければならない。

Article 54. When the House of Representatives is dissolved, there must be a general election of members of the House of Representatives within forty (40) days from the date of dissolution, and the Diet must be convoked within thirty (30) days from the date of the election.


When the House of Representatives is dissolved, the House of Councillors is closed at the same time. However, the Cabinet may in time of national emergency convoke the House of Councillors in emergency session.


Measures taken at such session as mentioned in the proviso of the preceding paragraph shall be provisional and shall become null and void unless agreed to by the House of Representatives within a period of ten (10) days after the opening of the next session of the Diet.

第五十五条 両議院は、各々その議員の資格に関する争訟を裁判する。但し、議員の議席を失はせるには、出席議員の三分の二以上の多数による議決を必要とする。

Article 55. Each House shall judge disputes related to qualifications of its members. However, in order to deny a seat to any member, it is necessary to pass a resolution by a majority of two-thirds or more of the members present.

第五十六条 両議院は、各々その総議員の三分の一以上の出席がなければ、議事を開き議決することができない。

Article 56. Business cannot be transacted in either House unless one-third or more of total membership is present.


All matters shall be decided, in each House, by a majority of those present, except as elsewhere provided in the Constitution, and in case of a tie, the presiding officer shall decide the issue.

第五十七条 両議院の会議は、公開とする。但し、出席議員の三分の二以上の多数で議決したときは、秘密会を開くことができる。

Article 57. Deliberation in each House shall be public. However, a secret meeting may be held where a majority of two-thirds or more of those members present passes a resolution therefor.


Each House shall keep a record of proceedings. This record shall be published and given general circulation, excepting such parts of proceedings of secret session as may be deemed to require secrecy.


Upon demand of one-fifth or more of the members present, votes of the members on any matter shall be recorded in the minutes.

第五十八条 両議院は、各々その議長その他の役員を選任する。

Article 58. Each House shall select its own president and other officials.


Each House shall establish its rules pertaining to meetings, proceedings and internal discipline, and may punish members for disorderly conduct. However, in order to expel a member, a majority of two-thirds or more of those members present must pass a resolution thereon.